The new millennium has seen a real change in global attitudes towards international development and poverty reduction, driven by imperatives which are moral, humanitarian, social, and economic. A new global commitment now exists to tackle the diseases of resource-constrained nations, and so reduce the poverty which is both their cause and effect. The huge efforts here, to increase coverage of bed-nets or access to effective medicines, need to be complemented by new vaccines. The most effective health interventions ever, vaccines offer the prospect of lasting reductions in disease burden and transmission, or even elimination. The challenges of developing vaccines against diseases of poverty and emerging infectious diseases are many. However, with a concerted international effort, led in Europe by EVI, success can be a vision and need no longer be just a dream.