Nipah virus Infection 

Nipah virus Infection

at a glance

Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus, for which the primary reservoirs are bats and pigs. Transmission can also occur through contaminated food or directly from person to person. It belongs to a family of viruses that also includes Hendra virus, another bat-borne virus that cause lethal infection in horses and humans. The natural hosts of the virus are Pteropus fruit bats, commonly known as flying foxes.

 

Nipah disease symptoms begin 5 to 14 days after infection and initially include fever, headaches, muscle pain, vomiting and sore throat. The disease then progresses rapidly, causing a combination of brain inflammation (encephalitis) and serious respiratory problems such as pneumonia. Patients who recover can suffer long-term neurological conditions, including seizures and personality changes. Initial diagnosis is difficult because the early signs and symptoms are non-specific.

 

Nipah virus was first identified in 1999 during an outbreak of illness affecting pig farmers and others having close contact with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore. Nipah has caused only a few known outbreaks in South and Southeast Asia, the potential for much larger exposure is significant, since more than 2 billion people live in areas where Pteropus bats are found. There is a risk it could also be spread to areas where fruit bats do not live via transmission between people. Thus, Nipah virus has the biological potential to be a truly global threat.  Nipah causes severe disease, with case fatality rates in Malaysia, Bangladesh and India of between 40% and 100%, being one of the deadliest viruses known to infect humans.

Case fatality rate

40% - 100%

alike Ebola

Malaysia, Bangladesh, Singapore, India and Philippines

Outbreaks

in 5 countries

Cases in Bangladesh

300

between 2001-2015

People at risk

2 Billion

in fruit bats endemic areas

Nipah virus Infection Vaccines

Sources:

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/nipah-virus

Nipah virus disease: A rare and intractable disease

Intractable Rare Dis Res. 2019 Feb; 8(1): 1–8. 

8 doi:10.5582/ird 2018.01130

Nipah virus infection: A review Epidemiol Infect. 2019; 147: e95.,

Discovery

Pre-clinical proof of concept

Clinical proof of concept

    Phase Ia    

    Phase Ib    

    Phase IIa    

Development

     Phase IIb     

     Phase III     

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